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EH 106: Freshman Writing I: Handouts

MLA Citations

Remember that your citations are a map back to the source you used. 

For all sources, you will need:

  • Author
  • Title
  • Publication Date

In addition, depending on the type of source, you may need the publishing place (book), volume (journal), section (newspaper), or date of access (web resource).

Just keep in mind ... what would YOU need if you wanted to find the article, book, or web page again?

Annotated Bibliographies: What Are They?

Your professor may ask you to write an annotated bibliography rather than a paper.  An annotated bibliography is a list of sources on a certain topic with a brief description of each source.

Each entry in an annotated bibliography should include all the information normally included in a list of works cited. Use the appropriate bibliographic format for citations (such as MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.) as specified by your instructor.

The bibliographic information is followed by an annotation. This annotation can be a few sentences or a lengthy paragraph that describes and evaluates the content of the source. If you have questions about how detailed or evaluative the annotations should be, ask your instructor.

Annotated Bibliography

The Research Process



A Few Notes on Searching

Now that you've found some background information, you want to narrow your searches for the next few papers. 

Use this RESEARCH WORKSHEET to help you with narrowing/broadening terms.

Where to find articles

You may need popular and/or scholarly articles.  These databases have both.

When searching Academic Search Premier:

It's to the upper right of your search results.

Scholarly vs Popular

Scholarly (academic, peer reviewed) articles don’t have to be read from beginning to end like you would a novel.


These questions will help you focus your reading in on the important parts of scholarly articles.

Step 3: Evaluating What You Find

Use a tool to record your research like Sterne Library's RESEARCH LOGIt will help you remember what terms worked and which ones didn't.

If you got too many results, you may need to narrow your search even more. For the college football example, you could look at a particular school, a certain conference, or a method of payment (cash vs. benefits).

If you didn't get many results, you may need to broaden your search to include more ideas.  Again, in our college football example, you could broaden your search to include all sports.

As always, if you need help you can contact me.

Getting Started

Visual Literacy Presentation

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