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Embase at UAB Libraries: Hedges (search filters)

Hedges: Definition and How to Apply

Hedges are standardized search strategies that can be used to help retrieve relevant articles. Hedges may be applied to improve the recall of various levels of evidence, such as randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews/meta-analyses, and to identify clinical concepts, such as diagnosis, etiology, prognosis and treatment. Hedges are also called filters, clinical queries, or optimal search strategies. They are not a guarantee of retrieving quality research; you will still need to critically appraise results for quality and relevance.

To apply these filters, copy and paste into the search box at the Embase results page, then click search:

  

then combine with other sets using AND/OR:

 

Humans

NOT ('animals'/exp NOT 'humans'/exp)  

Study Type Filters

Maximizes sensitivity:

          random*:ab,ti OR (clinical NEXT/1 trial*) OR 'health care quality'/exp

 

Maximizes specificity:

          (double NEXT/1 blind*) OR placebo*:ab,ti OR blind*:ab,ti

 

Best balance of sensitivity and specificity:

          random*:ab,ti OR placebo* OR (double NEXT/1 blind*):ab,ti

Source: Embase.com format of HiRU (Health Information Research Unit), McMaster University, Ontario, search strategies.

Maximizes sensitivity:

          'diagnosis':lnk OR predict*:ab,ti OR specificit*:ab,ti

 

Maximizes specificity:

          specificity*:ab,ti

 

Best balance of sensitivity and specificity:

          sensitiv*:ab,ti OR 'diagnostic accuracy'/de OR diagnostic:ab,ti

Source: Embase.com format of HiRU (Health Information Research Unit), McMaster University, Ontario, search strategies.

Maximizes sensitivity:

          'disease course'/exp OR risk* OR diagnos*:de,ab,ti OR 'follow up' OR epidemiology:lnk OR outcome*:ab,ti

 

Maximizes specificity:

          prognos*:ab,ti OR survival*:ab,ti

 

Best balance of sensitivity and specificity:

          'follow up' OR prognos*:ab,ti OR epidemiology:lnk

Source: Embase.com format of HiRU (Health Information Research Unit), McMaster University, Ontario, search strategies.

Maximizes sensitivity:

          'methodology'/exp OR search*:ab,ti OR 'review':it

 

Maximizes specificity:

          'meta analysis':ab,ti OR 'systematic review':ab,ti

 

Best balance of sensitivity and specificity:

          (meta NEXT/1 analys*):de,ab,ti OR search*:ab,ti OR 'review':it

Source: Embase.com format of HiRU (Health Information Research Unit), McMaster University, Ontario, search strategies.

Maximizes sensitivity:

          predict*:ab,ti OR 'methodology'/exp OR validat*:ab,ti

 

Maximizes specificity:

          validation:ab,ti OR prediction:ab,ti

 

Best balance of sensitivity and specificity:

          validat*:de,ab,ti OR index:ab,ti OR model:ab,ti

Source: Embase.com format of HiRU (Health Information Research Unit), McMaster University, Ontario, search strategies.

Maximizes sensitivity:

          interview*:ab,ti OR qualitative:ab,ti OR ‘health care organization’/exp

 

Maximizes specificity:

          qualitative:ab,ti OR ‘qualitative study’:ab,ti

 

Best balance of sensitivity and specificity:

          interview*:ab,ti OR ‘health care organization’/exp OR experiences:ab,ti

Source: Embase.com format of HiRU (Health Information Research Unit), McMaster University, Ontario, search strategies.

Maximizes sensitivity:

          risk*:de,ab,ti OR 'methodology'/exp OR 'epidemiology'/exp

 

Maximizes specificity:

          cohort:ab,ti OR (relative next/1 risk*):ab,ti

 

Best balance of sensitivity and specificity:

          risk:ab,ti OR mortalit*:ab,ti OR cohort:ab,ti

Source: Embase.com format of HiRU (Health Information Research Unit), McMaster University, Ontario, search strategies.

Maximizes sensitivity:

          'pharmacoeconomics':lnk OR 'device economics':lnk OR randomized:ab,ti OR randomised:ab,ti OR economic:ab,ti

 

Maximizes specificity:

          cost effectiveness’:ab,ti OR (sensitivity next/1 analys*):ab,ti

 

Best balance of sensitivity and specificity:

          cost:ab,ti OR costs:ab,ti

Source: Embase.com format of HiRU (Health Information Research Unit), McMaster University, Ontario, search strategies.

General Practice / Family Medicine

Sensitive:

(family OR physician* OR practice*:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR 'primary care' OR 'Primary Health Care'/exp OR primary:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR (general NEXT/1 pract*) OR gp:ab,ti OR gps:ab,ti)

Specific:

('Primary Health Care'/exp OR 'primary care' OR (general NEXT/1 pract*) OR family:ad OR (family NEXT/1 pract*) OR (family NEXT/1 physician*):de,it,lnk,ab,ti)

Patient Knowledge, Views, and Values

'patient participation'/exp OR 'doctor patient relation'/exp OR 'nurse patient relationship'/exp OR 'patient attitude'/exp OR 'attitude to death'/exp OR 'consumer'/exp OR 'patient preference'/exp OR 'patient satisfaction'/exp/mj OR 'patient education'/exp OR 'attitude to health'/exp OR 'quality of life'/exp/mj OR 'self care'/exp OR 'self concept'/exp OR 'self examination'/exp OR 'adaptive behavior'/exp OR 'coping behavior'/exp OR coping:ab,ti OR 'needs assessment'/exp OR 'personal autonomy'/exp OR 'patient advocacy'/exp OR 'life event'/exp OR 'patient centred':ab,ti OR 'patient-centered':ab,ti OR 'patient focused':ab,ti OR 'patient satisfaction':ti OR (patient* NEAR/3 prefer*):ab,ti OR 'focus group':ab,ti OR 'focus groups':ab,ti OR (patient NEAR/3 participat*):ab,ti OR (patient* NEAR/3 involve*):ab,ti OR (patient* NEAR/3 perspective*):ab,ti OR 'patient desire':ab,ti OR 'patient desires':ab,ti OR (patient* NEAR/2 view*):ab,ti OR (patient* NEAR/2 activat*):ab,ti OR (patient* NEAR/3 empower*):ab,ti OR (patient* NEAR/2 attitude*):ab,ti OR (patient* NEAR/2 decision*):ab,ti OR (patient* NEAR/3 collaborat*):ab,ti OR 'expert patient':ab,ti OR 'expert patients':ab,ti OR (patient* NEAR/2 needs):ab,ti OR 'self management':ab,ti OR 'self perception':ab,ti OR ('patient'/exp AND ('interpersonal communication'/exp OR 'decision making'/exp OR 'cooperation'/exp OR 'distress syndrome'/exp OR 'emotional stress'/exp))

Palliative Care

Sensitive:

“Terminal Care”/exp OR caregiver*:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR bereave*:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR inpatient:ab,ti OR “attitude to death”:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR “end of life” OR hospice*:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR “terminally ill”:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR palliative*:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR “Advance Care” OR palliat OR advanced OR (morphine AND cancer) OR “cancer pain”

Specific:

“Terminal Care”/exp OR bereave* OR hospice*:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR “advanced cancer”:ab,ti OR “end of life” OR “terminally ill”:de,it,lnk,ab,ti OR palliative*:ab,ti OR “palliative therapy”/exp

Wong Filter for RCTs

Sensitivity maximizing: 

random*:ab,ti OR (clinical NEXT/1 trial*):de,ab,ti OR 'health care quality'/exp

 

Specificity maximizing:  

(double NEXT/1 blind*):de,ab,ti OR placebo*:ab,ti OR blind*:ab,ti

 

Best optimization of sensitivity and specificity:  

random*:ab,ti OR placebo*:de,ab,ti OR (double NEXT/1 blind*):ab,ti

Source: Occupational Safety and Health Review Group, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

RCT Filter based on SIGN Filter

'clinical trial'/de OR 'randomized controlled trial'/de OR 'randomization'/de OR 'single blind procedure'/de OR 'double blind procedure'/de OR 'crossover procedure'/de OR 'placebo'/de OR 'prospective study'/de OR 'randomi?ed controlled' NEXT/1 trial* OR rct OR 'randomly allocated' OR 'allocated randomly' OR 'random allocation' OR allocated NEAR/2 random OR single NEXT/1 blind* OR double NEXT/1 blind* OR (treble OR triple) NEAR/1 blind* OR placebo*

Source: Occupational Safety and Health Review Group, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

RCT Filter based on Emtree and free text search terms mentioned in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, Section 6.3.2.2

'crossover procedure':de OR 'double-blind procedure':de OR 'randomized controlled trial':de OR  'single-blind procedure':de OR (random* OR  factorial* OR crossover* OR cross NEXT/1 over* OR placebo* OR doubl* NEAR/1 blind* OR singl* NEAR/1 blind* OR assign* OR allocat* OR volunteer*):de,ab,ti

Source: Occupational Safety and Health Review Group, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy for identifying RCTs: Sensitivity-maximizing

'randomized controlled trial'/exp OR 'controlled clinical trial'/exp OR randomized:ti,ab OR placebo:ti,ab OR 'drug therapy':lnk OR randomly:ti,ab OR trial:ti,ab OR groups:ti,ab

Source: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard University

Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy for identifying RCTs: Sensitivity and precision maximizing

'randomized controlled trial'/exp OR 'controlled clinical trial'/exp OR randomized:ab,ti OR placebo:ab,ti OR 'clinical trial (topic)'/exp OR randomly:ab,ti OR trial:ti

More Filters

United States

'United States'/exp OR “united states” OR usa OR u.s.a. OR Appalachia* OR “great lakes” OR mid-atlantic-state* OR mid-atlantic-region* OR middle-atlantic-state* OR middle-atlantic-region* OR midwestern-us* OR ‘Midwestern u.s.’ OR Midwestern-state* OR Midwest-state* OR Midwest-us* OR ‘Midwest u.s.’ OR 'midwest u.s.a.' OR “great plains” OR heartland OR “new england” OR northeastern-us* OR ‘northeastern u.s.’ OR 'northeastern u.s.a.' OR northeastern-state* OR northeast-state* OR northeast-us* OR ‘northeast u.s.’ OR 'northeast u.s.a.' OR “pacific northwest” OR northwestern-us* OR ‘northwestern u.s.’ OR ‘northwestern u.s.a.’ OR ‘northwest u.s.’ OR ‘northwest u.s.a.’ OR northwest-us* OR northwestern-state* OR northwest-state* OR pacific-state* OR southeast-state* OR southeastern-state* OR southeast-region OR southeastern-region OR southeast-us* OR southeastern-us* OR ‘southeast u.s.’ OR ‘southeast u.s.a.’  OR ‘southeastern u.s.’ OR ‘southeastern u.s.a.’ OR southern-state* OR southern-us* OR ‘southern u.s.’ OR ‘southern u.s.a.’ OR southwest-state* OR southwestern-state* OR southwest-us* OR southwestern-us* OR ‘southwest u.s.’ OR ‘southwest u.s.a.’ OR ‘southwestern u.s.’ OR ‘southwestern u.s.a.’ OR “deep south” OR “black belt” OR “rust belt” OR “district of Columbia” OR “Washington dc” OR Washington-d.c. OR Alabama OR (Birmingham:ad AND al:ad) OR Huntsville:ad OR (Montgomery:ad AND al:ad) OR Alaska OR anchorage:ad OR fairbanks:ad OR Arizona OR Phoenix:ad OR Tuscon:ad OR Flagstaff:ad OR Arkansas OR “little rock” OR California OR “los angeles” OR “san diego” OR “san Francisco” OR Berkeley:ad OR Stanford:ad OR Colorado OR Vail:ad OR Denver:ad OR Connecticut OR Farmington:ad OR “new haven”:ad OR Hartford:ad OR Delaware OR Wilmington:ad OR Newark:ad OR Florida OR Miami:ad OR Gainesville OR Jacksonville OR Tampa OR Tallahassee OR Georgia OR Atlanta OR (Athens:ad AND ga:ad) OR (Augusta:ad AND ga:ad) OR Hawaii OR 'hawai i' OR Honolulu OR Idaho OR Boise:ad OR Illinois OR Chicago OR Urbana:ad OR Evanston:ad OR Indiana:ad,ti,ab OR Indianapolis OR "West Lafayette" OR Iowa OR Kansas OR Wichita OR Kentucky OR Lexington:ad OR Louisville:ad OR Bardstown:ad OR Louisiana OR “new Orleans” OR “baton rouge” OR Shreveport OR Maine OR Orono OR (Scarborough:ad AND me:ad) OR Maryland OR Bethesda:ad OR Baltimore:ad OR Rockville:ad OR “johns Hopkins” OR Massachusetts OR Boston OR Harvard OR (worcester:ad AND ma:ad) OR Burlington:ad OR Michigan OR Detroit OR “ann arbor” OR “east lansing” OR Minnesota OR Minneapolis OR Rochester OR “st paul”:ad OR “saint paul”:ad OR Mississippi OR (Jackson:ad AND ms:ad) OR Missouri OR (Columbia:ad AND mo:ad) OR Montana OR Bozeman:ad OR Missoula OR Nebraska OR Omaha:ad OR Lincoln:ad OR Nevada OR “Las Vegas” OR “New Hampshire” OR “New Jersey” OR “New Mexico” OR “New York” OR “North Carolina” OR “North Dakota” OR Ohio OR Columbus:ad OR Cleveland:ad OR Cincinnati OR Oklahoma OR Oregon OR Portland:ad OR Pennsylvania OR Philadelphia OR Hershey:ad OR “Rhode Island” OR providence:ad OR “South Carolina” OR “South Dakota” OR Tennessee OR Nashville OR Memphis OR Texas OR Houston:ad,ab,ti OR Utah OR Vermont OR Virginia:ad,ab,ti OR Richmond:ad OR Washington:ad,ab,ti OR Seattle OR “West Virginia” OR Wisconsin OR Wyoming

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