For article titles, only capitalize the first word and proper nouns and abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized.
Use abbreviations of journal titles (use the PubMed Journals Database to get journal abbreviations).
References are numbered consecutively in the order they appear in the text. All references are at the end of the paper under the heading Reference List.
Include DOIs for online articles.
If you have an article citation without a DOI, you can look up the DOI at CrossRef.org.
Likewise, if you have a DOI but not the citation information, you can look up the citation at DOI.org.
Some articles and journals do not provide DOIs--it is the publisher's preference to include or not to include a DOI. When citing an article without a DOI, check the style manual (APA, AMA, ect.) for guidance.
Book with 1 Author/Editor:
Bollet AJ. Civil War Medicine: Challenges and Triumphs. Tucson, AZ: Galen Press; 2002.
Frumkin H, ed. Environmental Health: From Global to Local. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2005.
Book with More than 1 Author/Editor:
Reference List: (For 2-6 authors/editors, list all; if 7 or more, list the first 3 followed by "et al.")
Kaplan C, Turner GS, Warrell DA. Rabies: The Facts. New York: Oxford University Press; 1986.
Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier; 2010.
Print Article with 1 Author:
Cropley TG. Dermatology and skin disease in the American Civil War. Dermatol Nurs. 2008;20(1):29-33.
Print Article with More than 1 Author:
Reference List: (For 2-6 authors, list all; if 7 or more, list the first 3 followed by "et al.")
Rowney R, Barton G. The role of public health nursing in emergency preparedness and response. Nurs Clin North Am. 2005;40(3):499-509.
Seal AJ, Creeke PI, Dibari F, et al. Low and deficient niacin status and pellagra are epidemic in postwar Angola. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(1):218-224.
Online Article: (Include DOI if available; if DOI is not available, provide URL, published date, and date accessed.)
Rowney R, Barton G. The role of public health nursing in emergency preparedness and response. Nurs Clin North Am. 2005;40(3):499-509. doi:10.1016/j.cnur.2005.04.005.
DOI not available
Rowney R, Barton G. The role of public health nursing in emergency preparedness and response. Nurs Clin North Am. 2005;40(3):499-509. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0029646505000216. Accessed November 9, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website. http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed April 13, 2010.
Major earthquake in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti avoid nonessential travel to Haiti. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/content/travel-health-warning/haiti-earthquake.aspx. Published January 13, 2010. Updated July 21, 2010. Accessed October 12, 2010.
E-mail: E-mail and personal communications are not listed in the Reference List. They should be included as in-text citations and should include the name and highest academic degrees of the sender.
(John Doe, Ph.D., e-mail communication, April 18, 2010)
In-text citations are only used when a reference would not be included in a reference list, such as news articles, obituaries, and material submitted for publication but not yet accepted.
For in-text citations to articles:
See Section 3.3 References Given in Text of the AMA Manual of Style for more information on in-text citations.
Lister Hill Library