Scientific information becomes more technical as you move up the pyramid from tertiary to primary sources.
This reflects the change from science communication for the public to scientific communication for other experts.
Tertiary Sources (example)
Secondary Sources (example)
Primary Sources (example)
Below is an overview of the science news cycle:
1. Scientist publishes paper in an academic journal
2. Organization summarizes research in a press release
3. Journalist reports on research in a magazine
4. Reporter communicates information via media/internet
5. General public learns about and shares information
The findings of this study have not been peer reviewed.
Peer review is a process through which scientists
Academic journals generally do not publish papers
Scientists can share studies that have not been
Source: Cham, J. (2021, August 6). Science news cycle. ComSciCon.
Use the library databases below to find information in newspapers, magazines, and journals:
Use the tips below when searching library databases:
AND – find all of the terms and get fewer results [insect AND declin*]
OR – find any of the terms and get more results [insect AND (apocalypse OR armageddon)]
declin* – finds all terms starting with root word [decline, declines, declined, and declining]
"insect apocalypse" – finds terms next to each other in order given
change sort order from newest to relevance [above results in upper right corner]
limit by academic journals, magazines, or newspapers [under refine results in left column]
Use the search engine below to find information available on the web:
IMPORTANT: Evaluate the source before using information from a web page.
Click Restraint video by Stanford History Education Group
Lateral Reading video by University of Louisville Libraries
Use the tips below when searching Google:
scan results to make a more informed choice about where to start instead of immediately clicking on first search result (see video tutorial)
verify what you are reading while you are reading it (see video tutorial)
click on news on the results page to find news stories
click on settings in lower right corner of main search page for Google to access advanced search
find results that are more academic (scholarly) such as journal articles