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PubMed via LHL: Hedges

Hedges: Definition and How to Apply

Hedges are standardized search strategies that can be used to help retrieve relevant articles. Hedges may be applied to improve the recall of various levels of evidence, such as randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews/meta-analyses, and to identify clinical concepts, such as diagnosis, etiology, prognosis and treatment. Hedges are also called filters, clinical queries, or optimal search strategies. They are not a guarantee of retrieving quality research; you still need to critically appraise results for quality and relevance.

To apply these filters, copy and paste the entire statement into the PubMed search box then go to the Advanced search page to combine sets:

COVID19 - Medline hedge

National Library of Medicine:

2019-nCoV OR 2019nCoV OR COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR ((wuhan AND coronavirus) AND 2019/12[PDAT]:2030[PDAT])
Source: NLM Technical Bulletin, Feb. 2020 -

MLA Clinical Librarians Caucus:

((((coronavirus OR “corona virus” OR coronavirinae OR coronaviridae OR betacoronavirus OR covid19 OR “covid 19” OR nCoV OR “CoV 2” OR CoV2 OR sarscov2 OR 2019nCoV OR “novel CoV” OR “wuhan virus”) OR ((wuhan OR hubei OR huanan) AND (“severe acute respiratory” OR pneumonia) AND (outbreak)) OR “Coronavirus”[Mesh] OR “Coronavirus Infections”[Mesh] OR “COVID-19” [Supplementary Concept] OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2” [Supplementary Concept] OR “Betacoronavirus”[Mesh])) AND 2019/12[PDAT]:2030[PDAT])

Source:  MLA Clinical Librarians Caucus 4/7/2020

Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions

Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy for identifying RCTs: Sensitivity and precision maximizing:

((randomized controlled trial [pt] OR controlled clinical trial [pt] OR randomized [tiab] OR placebo [tiab] OR clinical trials as topic [mesh:noexp] OR randomly [tiab] OR trial [ti])) NOT (("animals"[MeSH Terms] NOT "humans"[MeSH Terms]))

Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy for identifying RCTs: Sensitivity-maximizing:

((randomized controlled trial [pt] OR controlled clinical trial [pt] OR randomized [tiab] OR placebo [tiab] OR drug therapy [sh] OR randomly [tiab] OR trial [tiab] OR groups [tiab])) NOT (("animals"[MeSH Terms] NOT "humans"[MeSH Terms]))


NOT ("animals"[MeSH Terms] NOT "humans"[MeSH Terms])

CADTH: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health

Randomized Controlled Trials:

randomized controlled trial[pt] OR randomized controlled trials as topic[mh] OR random allocation [mh] OR double-blind method[mh] OR single-blind method[mh] OR random*[tw] OR "Placebos"[Mesh] OR placebo[tiab] OR ((singl*[tw] OR doubl*[tw] OR trebl*[tw] OR tripl*[tw]) AND (mask*[tw] OR blind*[tw] OR dumm*[tw]))


Clinical pathway[mh] OR Clinical protocol[mh] OR Consensus[mh] OR Consensus development conferences as topic[mh] OR Critical pathways[mh] OR Guidelines as topic [Mesh:NoExp] OR Practice guidelines as topic[mh] OR Health planning guidelines[mh] OR guideline[pt] OR practice guideline[pt] OR consensus development conference[pt] OR consensus development conference, NIH[pt] OR position statement*[tiab] OR policy statement*[tiab] OR practice parameter*[tiab] OR best practice*[tiab] OR standards[ti] OR guideline[ti] OR guidelines[ti] OR ((practice[tiab] OR treatment*[tiab]) AND guideline*[tiab]) OR CPG[tiab] OR CPGs[tiab] OR consensus*[tiab] OR ((critical[tiab] OR clinical[tiab] OR practice[tiab]) AND (path[tiab] OR paths[tiab] OR pathway[tiab] OR pathways[tiab] OR protocol*[tiab])) OR recommendat*[ti] OR (care[tiab] AND (standard[tiab] OR path[tiab] OR paths[tiab] OR pathway[tiab] OR pathways[tiab] OR map[tiab] OR maps[tiab] OR plan[tiab] OR plans[tiab])) OR (algorithm*[tiab] AND (screening[tiab] OR examination[tiab] OR test[tiab] OR tested[tiab] OR testing[tiab] OR assessment*[tiab] OR diagnosis[tiab] OR diagnoses[tiab] OR diagnosed[tiab] OR diagnosing[tiab])) OR (algorithm*[tiab] AND (pharmacotherap*[tiab] OR chemotherap*[tiab] OR chemotreatment*[tiab] OR therap*[tiab] OR treatment*[tiab] OR intervention*[tiab]))

Systematic Reviews / Meta-Analysis / Health Technology Assessment:

systematic[sb] OR meta-analysis[pt] OR meta-analysis as topic[mh] OR meta-analysis[mh] OR meta analy*[tw] OR metanaly*[tw] OR metaanaly*[tw] OR met analy*[tw] OR integrative research[tiab] OR integrative review*[tiab] OR integrative overview*[tiab] OR research integration*[tiab] OR research overview*[tiab] OR collaborative review*[tiab] OR collaborative overview*[tiab] OR systematic review*[tiab] OR technology assessment*[tiab] OR technology overview*[tiab] OR "Technology Assessment, Biomedical"[mh] OR HTA[tiab] OR HTAs[tiab] OR comparative efficacy[tiab] OR comparative effectiveness[tiab] OR outcomes research[tiab] OR indirect comparison*[tiab] OR ((indirect treatment[tiab] OR mixed-treatment[tiab]) AND comparison*[tiab]) OR Embase*[tiab] OR Cinahl*[tiab] OR systematic overview*[tiab] OR methodological overview*[tiab] OR methodologic overview*[tiab] OR methodological review*[tiab] OR methodologic review*[tiab] OR quantitative review*[tiab] OR quantitative overview*[tiab] OR quantitative synthes*[tiab] OR pooled analy*[tiab] OR Cochrane[tiab] OR Medline[tiab] OR Pubmed[tiab] OR Medlars[tiab] OR handsearch*[tiab] OR hand search*[tiab] OR meta-regression*[tiab] OR metaregression*[tiab] OR data synthes*[tiab] OR data extraction[tiab] OR data abstraction*[tiab] OR mantel haenszel[tiab] OR peto[tiab] OR der-simonian[tiab] OR dersimonian[tiab] OR fixed effect*[tiab] OR "Cochrane Database Syst Rev"[Journal:__jrid21711] OR "health technology assessment winchester, england"[Journal] OR "Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep)"[Journal] OR "Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ)"[Journal] OR "Int J Technol Assess Health Care"[Journal] OR "GMS Health Technol Assess"[Journal] OR "Health Technol Assess (Rockv)"[Journal] OR "Health Technol Assess Rep"[Journal]

Economic Evaluations / Cost / Economic Models

Economics[Mesh:NoExp] OR "Costs and Cost Analysis"[mh] OR Economics, Nursing[mh] OR Economics, Medical[mh] OR Economics, Pharmaceutical[mh] OR Economics, Hospital[mh] OR Economics, Dental[mh] OR "Fees and Charges"[mh] OR Budgets[mh] OR budget*[tiab] OR economic*[tiab] OR cost[tiab] OR costs[tiab] OR costly[tiab] OR costing[tiab] OR price[tiab] OR prices[tiab] OR pricing[tiab] OR pharmacoeconomic*[tiab] OR pharmaco-economic*[tiab] OR expenditure[tiab] OR expenditures[tiab] OR expense[tiab] OR expenses[tiab] OR financial[tiab] OR finance[tiab] OR finances[tiab] OR financed[tiab] OR value for money[tiab] OR monetary value*[tiab] OR models, economic[mh] OR economic model*[tiab] OR markov chains[mh] OR markov[tiab] OR monte carlo method[mh] OR monte carlo[tiab] OR Decision Theory[mh] OR decision tree*[tiab] OR decision analy*[tiab] OR decision model*[tiab]

Narrow Economic filter

Economics[majr:noexp] OR “costs and cost analysis”[majr] OR (economic[tiab] AND model*[tiab]) OR cost minimi*[tiab] OR cost-utilit*[tiab] OR health utilit*[tiab] OR economic evaluation*[tiab] OR economic review*[tiab] OR cost outcome[tiab] OR cost analys*[tiab] OR economic analys*[tiab] OR (budget*[tiab] AND impact analys*[tiab]) OR cost-effective*[ti] OR pharmacoeconomic*[ti] OR pharmaco-economic*[ti] OR cost-benefit[ti] OR costs[ti] OR cost-effective*[ot] OR pharmacoeconomic*[ot] OR pharmaco-economic*[ot] OR cost-benefit[ot] OR costs[ot] OR life year[tiab] OR life years[tiab] OR qaly*[tiab] OR cost-benefit analys*[tiab] OR cost-effectiveness analys*[tiab] OR ((cost[ti] OR economic*[ti] OR cost[ot] OR economic*[ot]) AND (costs[tiab] OR cost-effectiveness[tiab] OR markov[tiab]))

National Library of Medicine

The National Library of Medicine provides several topic-specific PubMed queries, including:

Age Groups

Improved CCG (Cochrane Childhood Cancer Group) child filter:

Infan* OR newborn* OR new-born* OR perinat* OR neonat* OR baby OR baby* OR babies OR toddler* OR minors OR minors* OR boy OR boys OR boyfriend OR boyhood OR girl* OR kid OR kids OR child OR child* OR children* OR schoolchild* OR schoolchild OR school child [tiab] OR school child*[tiab] OR adolescen* OR juvenil* OR youth* OR teen* OR under*age* OR pubescen* OR pediatrics[mh] OR pediatric* OR paediatric* OR peadiatric* OR school [tiab] OR school*[tiab] OR prematur* OR preterm*


Geriatrics, most sensitive:

Elderly [tiab] OR community-dwelling [tiab] OR geriatric [tiab] OR “mini-mental state” [tiab] OR alzheimer [tiab] OR alzheimer’s [tiab] OR alzheimers [tiab] OR mmse [tiab] OR caregivers [tiab] OR falls [tiab] OR Adl [tiab] OR Frailty [tiab] OR Gds [tiab] OR Ageing [tiab] OR “hip fractures “ [tiab] OR elders [tiab] OR Frail [tiab] OR Mci [tiab] OR Demented [tiab] OR Psychogeriatrics [tiab] OR “cognitive impairment” [tiab] OR “postmenopausal women” [tiab] OR comorbidities [tiab] OR dementia [tiab] OR aging [tiab] OR older [tiab] OR “daily living” [tiab] OR “cognitive decline” [tiab] OR “cognitive impairment” [tiab] OR residents [tiab] OR “cognitive functioning” OR “old people” [tiab] OR nursing homes [mh] OR Geriatric assessment [mh] OR aging [mh] OR frail elderly [mh] OR Alzheimer disease [mh] OR homes for the aged [mh] OR cognition disorders [mh] OR dementia [mh] OR Activities of daily living [mh] OR aged, 80 and over [mh]

Geriatrics, most specific:

Elderly [tiab] OR community-dwelling [tiab] OR geriatric [tiab] OR “mini-mental state” [tiab] OR alzheimer [tiab] OR alzheimer’s [tiab] OR alzheimers [tiab] OR mmse [tiab] OR caregivers [tiab] OR falls [tiab] OR Adl [tiab] OR Frailty [tiab] OR Gds [tiab] OR Ageing [tiab] OR elders [tiab] OR Frail [tiab] OR Mci [tiab] OR Demented [tiab] OR Psychogeriatrics [tiab] OR “cognitive impairment” [tiab] OR “postmenopausal women” [tiab] OR Comorbidities [tiab] OR geriatric assessment [mh] OR Nursing homes [mh] OR frail elderly [mh] OR alzheimer disease/epidemiology [mh] OR cognition disorders/diagnosis [mh] OR cognition disorders/epidemiology [mh] OR homes for the aged [mh]

Geriatrics, specific with increased sensitivity:

Elderly [tiab] OR community-dwelling [tiab] OR geriatric [tiab] OR “mini-mental state” [tiab] OR alzheimer [tiab] OR alzheimer’s [tiab] OR alzheimers [tiab]OR mmse [tiab] OR caregivers [tiab] OR falls [tiab] OR Adl [tiab] OR Frailty [tiab] OR Gds [tiab] OR Ageing [tiab] OR elders [tiab] OR Frail [tiab] OR Mci [tiab] OR Demented [tiab] OR Psychogeriatrics [tiab] OR “cognitive impairment” [tiab] OR “postmenopausal women” [tiab] OR Comorbidities [tiab] OR geriatric assessment [mh] OR Nursing homes [mh] OR frail elderly [mh] OR cognition disorders/diagnosis [mh] OR cognition disorders/epidemiology [mh] OR homes for the aged [mh] OR alzheimer disease [mh] OR dementia [tiab]

University of Texas School of Public Health Library

Case-control studies:

“Case-Control Studies”[Mesh:noexp] OR "retrospective studies"[mesh:noexp] OR “Control Groups”[Mesh:noexp] OR (case[TIAB] AND control[TIAB]) OR (cases[TIAB] AND controls[TIAB]) OR (cases[TIAB] AND controlled[TIAB]) OR (case[TIAB] AND comparison*[TIAB]) OR (cases[TIAB] AND comparison*[TIAB]) OR “control group”[TIAB] OR “control groups”[TIAB]

Cohort studies:

cohort studies[mesh:noexp] OR longitudinal studies[mesh:noexp] OR follow-up studies[mesh:noexp] OR prospective studies[mesh:noexp] OR retrospective studies[mesh:noexp] OR cohort[TIAB] OR longitudinal[TIAB] OR prospective[TIAB] OR retrospective[TIAB]

Cross-sectional with prevalence studies:

Cross-Sectional Studies[Mesh:noexp] OR cross-sectional[TIAB] OR Prevalence[mesh:noexp] OR prevalence[tiab] OR transversal study[tiab]

Clinical trials:

"Clinical Trial" [PT:NoExp] OR "clinical trial, phase i"[pt] OR "clinical trial, phase ii"[pt] OR "clinical trial, phase iii"[pt] OR "clinical trial, phase iv"[pt] OR "controlled clinical trial"[pt] OR "multicenter study"[pt] OR "randomized controlled trial"[pt] OR "Clinical Trials as Topic"[mesh:noexp] OR "clinical trials, phase i as topic"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "clinical trials, phase ii as topic"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "clinical trials, phase iii as topic"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "clinical trials, phase iv as topic"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "controlled clinical trials as topic"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "randomized controlled trials as topic"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "early termination of clinical trials"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "multicenter studies as topic"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR “Double-Blind Method”[Mesh] OR ((randomised[TIAB] OR randomized[TIAB]) AND (trial[TIAB] OR trials[tiab])) OR ((single[TIAB] OR double[TIAB] OR doubled[TIAB] OR triple[TIAB] OR tripled[TIAB] OR treble[TIAB] OR treble[TIAB]) AND (blind*[TIAB] OR mask*[TIAB])) OR ("4 arm"[tiab] OR "four arm"[tiab])

Qualitative studies / research:

“interviews as topic”[Mesh:noexp] OR “focus groups”[Mesh:noexp] OR narration[Mesh:noexp] OR qualitative research[Mesh:noexp] OR (((“semi-structured”[TIAB] OR semistructured[TIAB] OR unstructured[TIAB] OR structured[TIAB] OR informal[TIAB] OR “in-depth”[TIAB] OR indepth[TIAB] OR “face-to-face”[TIAB] OR guide[TIAB] OR guides[TIAB]) AND (interview*[TIAB] OR discussion*[TIAB] OR questionnaire*[TIAB])) OR (“focus group”[TIAB] OR “focus groups”[TIAB] OR qualitative[TIAB] OR ethnograph*[TIAB] OR fieldwork[TIAB] OR “field work”[TIAB] OR “key informant”[TIAB]))

Systematic Reviews:

(systematic*[tiab] AND (bibliographic*[TIAB] OR literature[tiab] OR review[tiab] OR reviewed[tiab] OR reviews[tiab])) OR (comprehensive*[TIAB] AND (bibliographic*[TIAB] OR literature[tiab])) OR “cochrane database syst rev”[Journal] OR "Evidence report/technology assessment (Summary)"[journal] OR "Evidence report/technology assessment"[journal] OR "integrative literature review"[tiab] OR "integrative research review"[tiab] OR "integrative review"[tiab] OR “research synthesis”[tiab] OR “research integration”[tiab] OR cinahl[tiab] OR embase[tiab] OR medline[tiab] OR psyclit[tiab] OR (psycinfo[tiab] NOT “psycinfo database”[tiab]) OR pubmed[tiab] OR scopus[tiab] OR “web of science”[tiab] OR “data synthesis”[tiab] OR meta-analys*[tiab] OR meta-analyz*[tiab] OR meta-analyt*[tiab] OR metaanalys*[tiab] OR metaanalyz*[tiab] OR metaanalyt*[tiab] OR “meta-analysis as topic”[MeSH:noexp] OR Meta-Analysis[ptyp] OR ((review[tiab] AND (rationale[tiab] OR evidence[tiab])) AND review[pt])

Program Evaluation:

"evaluation studies"[pt] OR "evaluation studies as topic"[mesh:noexp] OR "program evaluation"[mesh:noexp] OR "validation studies as topic"[mesh:noexp] OR (pre-[tiab] AND post-[tiab]) OR (pretest[tiab] AND posttest[tiab]) OR (program*[tiab] AND (evaluat*[tiab] OR effectiveness[tiab])) OR intervention[tiab]

Consensus Statements/Guidelines:

(clinical[tiab] AND pathway[tiab]) OR (clinical[tiab] AND pathways[tiab]) OR (practice[tiab] AND parameter[tiab]) OR (practice[tiab] AND parameters[tiab]) OR algorithms[mesh:noexp] OR care pathway[tiab] OR care pathways[tiab] OR clinical protocols[mesh:noexp] OR Consensus[mesh:noexp] or consensus development conference[pt:noexp] OR "Consensus Development Conference, NIH"[pt:noexp] OR "Consensus Development Conferences as Topic"[Mesh:noexp] OR "Consensus Development Conferences, NIH as Topic"[Mesh:NoExp] OR critical pathway[mesh:noexp] OR guidance[tiab] OR guideline*[ti] OR guidelines as topic[mesh:noexp] or practice guidelines as topic[mesh:noexp] or Health Planning Guidelines[mesh:noexp] OR practice guideline[mesh:noexp]


"vaccines"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "viral vaccines"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "immunotherapy"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR ("vaccination"[MeSH Terms] OR "immunization"[MeSH Terms]) OR "immunization programs"[MeSH Terms] OR vaccinate[tiab] OR vaccinated[tiab] OR vaccination[tiab] OR vaccinations[tiab] OR vaccine[tiab] OR vaccines[tiab] OR immunisation[tiab] OR immunisations[tiab] OR immunise[tiab] OR immunised[tiab] OR immunises[tiab] or immunising[tiab] OR immunization[tiab] OR immunizations[tiab] OR immunize[tiab] OR immunized[tiab] OR  immunizes[tiab] OR immunizing[tiab]

Overviews of Systematic Reviews

Sensitivity and precision maximizing strategy:

((overview*[TI] OR review[TI] OR synthesis[TI] OR summary[TI] OR cochrane[TI] OR analysis[TI]) AND (reviews[TI] OR meta-analyses[TI] OR articles[TI] OR umbrella[TI]) OR “umbrella review”[TIAB] OR meta-review[TIAB] OR metareview[TIAB])

Sensitivity-maximizing strategy:

((overview*[TI] OR review[TI] OR synthesis[TI] OR summary[TI] OR cochrane[TI] OR analysis[TI]) AND (reviews[TI] OR meta-analyses[TI] OR articles[TI] OR umbrella[TI])) OR “umbrella review”[TIAB] OR (meta-review[TIAB] OR metareview[TIAB]) OR ((overview*[TI] OR reviews[TI]) AND (systematic[TI] OR cochrane[TI])) OR (reviews[TIAB] AND (meta[TIAB] OR published[TIAB] OR quality[TIAB] OR included[TIAB] OR summar*[TIAB])) OR (“cochrane reviews”[TIAB]) OR (evidence[TI] AND (reviews[TI] OR meta-analyses[TI]))

Duke University Medical Center Library

Qualitative research:

qualitative research [MeSH] OR qualitative[tiab] OR themes[tiab]

Patient Knowledge, Views, and Values

((Patient Participation[Mesh] OR consumer participation[Mesh] OR Professional-Patient Relations[Mesh] OR Patient-Centered Care[Mesh] OR Patient Preference[Mesh] OR Patient Satisfaction[Majr] OR Patient Education as Topic[Mesh] OR Attitude to Health[Mesh] OR Attitude to Death[Mesh] OR Patient Acceptance of Health Care[Mesh] OR Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice[Mesh] OR Focus Groups[Mesh] OR Quality of Life[Majr] OR Self Care[mh:noexp] OR Self Concept[Mesh] OR Self-examination[Mesh] OR Cooperative Behavior[Mesh] OR Adaptation, Psychological[Mesh] OR Decision Support Techniques[Mesh] OR Self-Help Groups[Mesh] OR Community Networks[Mesh] OR Emotions[Mesh] OR Consumer Satisfaction[Mesh] OR Needs Assessment[Mesh] OR Personal Autonomy[Mesh] OR Patient Advocacy[Mesh] OR Life Change Events[Mesh]) OR (patient perspective*[tiab] OR patient's perspective*[tiab] OR patient desire*[tiab] OR patient's desire*[tiab] OR "patient's desires"[tiab] OR patient view*[tiab] OR patient's view*[tiab] OR patient expression*[tiab] OR patient's expression*[tiab] OR patient attitude*[tiab] OR patient's attitude*[tiab] OR patient involvement*[tiab] OR patient's involvement*[tiab] OR patient decision*[tiab] OR patient's decision*[tiab] OR patient activation[tiab] OR patient's activation[tiab] OR patients activation[tiab] OR patient empowerment[tiab] OR patient participation[tiab] OR patient's participation[tiab] OR patients participation[tiab] OR patient collaboration[tiab] OR patient's collaboration[tiab] OR patients collaboration[tiab] OR expert patient*[tiab] OR consumer participation[tiab] OR consumer perspective[tiab] OR consumers perspective[tiab] OR consumer's perspective[tiab] OR consumer involvement[tiab] OR patient-focused[tiab] OR patient-centred[tiab] OR patient-centered[tiab] OR patient needs[tiab] OR self-management[ti] OR self-perception[tiab]) OR (Patients[Majr] AND (Communication[MeSH Terms] OR Decision Making[Mesh])))

Nephrology Filters from HiRU

The link below will connect you to the following PubMed filters/hedges from the Health Information Research Unit (HiRU) at McMaster University:

  • All nephrology content: sensitive/broad & specific/narrow
  • Kidney transplantation: sensitive/broad & specific/narrow
  • Glomerular disease: sensitive/broad & specific/narrow
  • Dialysis: sensitive/broad & specific/narrow
  • Acute kidney injury/acute renal failure: sensitive/broad & specific/narrow
  • Chronic kidney disease/chronic renal insufficiency: sensitive/broad & specific/narrow

Sex and Gender Specific Health Literature

(sex based OR sex factors OR sex distribution OR sex characteristics OR sex dimorphism OR gender difference* OR gender based) AND (gender[ti] OR sex[ti])

General Practice / Family Medicine


("family"[all fields] OR physician*[all fields] OR practice*[tw] OR "primary care"[all fields] OR "Primary Health Care"[mh] OR primary[tw] OR general pract*[tiab] OR gp[tiab] OR gps[tiab])



("Primary Health Care"[mh] OR "primary care"[all fields] OR "Physicians, Family"[mh] OR general pract*[all fields] OR "family"[ad] OR family pract*[all fields] OR family physician*[tw])

Palliative Care


“Terminal Care”[mh] OR caregiver*[tw] OR bereave* OR inpatient[tiab] OR “attitude to death”[tw] OR “end of life” OR hospice* OR “terminally ill”[tw] OR palliative*[tw] OR “Advance Care” OR palliat OR advanced OR (morphine AND cancer) OR “cancer pain”


“Terminal Care”[mh] OR bereave* OR hospice*[tw] OR “advanced cancer”[tiab] OR “end of life” OR “terminally ill”[tw] OR palliative*[tiab] OR “Palliative Care”[mh]

United States (work in progress!)

United States [mh] OR “united states” OR usa OR u.s.a. OR Appalachia* OR “great lakes” OR mid-atlantic-state* OR mid-atlantic-region* OR middle-atlantic-state* OR middle-atlantic-region* OR midwestern-us* OR midwestern-u.s* OR Midwestern-state* OR Midwest-state* OR Midwest-us* OR Midwest-u.s* OR “great plains” OR heartland OR “new england” OR northeastern-us* OR northeastern-u.s* OR northeastern-state* OR northeast-state* OR northeast-us* OR northeast-u.s* OR “pacific northwest” OR northwestern-us* OR northwestern-u.s* OR northwest-u.s* OR northwest-us* OR northwestern-state* OR northwest-state* OR pacific-state* OR southeast-state* OR southeastern-state* OR southeast-region OR southeastern-region OR southeast-us* OR southeastern-us* OR southeast-u.s* OR southeastern-u.s* OR southern-state* OR southern-us* OR southern-u.s* OR southwest-state* OR southwestern-state* OR southwest-us* OR southwestern-us* OR southwest-u.s* OR southwestern-u.s* OR “deep south” OR “black belt” OR “rust belt” OR “district of Columbia” OR “Washington dc” OR Washington-d.c. OR Alabama OR (Birmingham [ad] AND al [ad]) OR Huntsville [ad] OR (Montgomery [ad] AND al [ad])OR Alaska OR anchorage [ad] OR fairbanks [ad] OR Arizona OR Phoenix [ad] OR Tuscon [ad] OR Flagstaff [ad] OR Arkansas OR “little rock” OR California OR “los angeles” OR “san diego” OR “san Francisco” OR Berkeley [ad] OR Stanford [ad] OR Colorado OR Vail [ad] OR Denver [ad] OR Connecticut OR Farmington [ad] OR “new haven” [ad] OR Hartford [ad] OR Delaware OR Wilmington [ad] OR Newark [ad] OR Florida OR Miami [ad] OR Gainesville OR Jacksonville OR Tampa OR Tallahassee OR Georgia OR Atlanta OR (Athens [ad] AND ga [ad]) OR (Augusta [ad] AND ga [ad]) OR Hawaii OR Hawai'i OR Honolulu OR Idaho OR Boise [ad] OR Illinois OR Chicago OR Urbana [ad] OR Evanston [ad] OR Indiana OR Indianapolis OR "West Lafayette" OR Iowa OR Kansas OR Wichita OR Kentucky OR Lexington [ad] OR Louisville [ad] OR Bardstown [ad] OR Louisiana OR “new Orleans” OR “baton rouge” OR Shreveport OR Maine OR Orono OR (Scarborough [ad] AND me [ad]) OR Maryland OR Bethesda [ad] OR Baltimore [ad] OR Rockville [ad] OR “johns Hopkins” OR Massachusetts OR Boston OR Harvard OR (worcester [ad] AND ma [ad]) OR Burlington [ad] OR Michigan OR Detroit OR “ann arbor” OR “east lansing” OR Minnesota OR Minneapolis OR Rochester OR “st paul” [ad] OR “saint paul” [ad] OR Mississippi OR (Jackson [ad] AND ms [ad]) OR Missouri OR (Columbia [ad] AND mo [ad]) OR Montana OR Bozeman [ad] OR Missoula OR Nebraska OR Omaha [ad] OR Lincoln [ad] OR Nevada OR “Las Vegas” OR “New Hampshire” OR “New Jersey” OR “New Mexico” OR “New York” OR “North Carolina” OR “North Dakota” OR Ohio OR Columbus [ad] OR Cleveland [ad] OR Cincinnati OR Oklahoma OR Oregon OR Portland [ad] OR Pennsylvania OR Philadelphia OR Hershey [ad] OR “Rhode Island” OR providence [ad] OR “South Carolina” OR “South Dakota” OR Tennessee OR Nashville OR Memphis OR Texas OR Houston OR Utah OR Vermont OR Virginia OR Richmond [ad] OR Washington [tiab] OR Washington [ad] OR Seattle OR “West Virginia” OR Wisconsin OR Wyoming

Sources for more hedges

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