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MLA (Modern Language Association) Style: Citing electronic sources



Adamec, Christine A. Pathological Gambling. Chelsea, 2011. eBook Collection (Ebscohost),


Rothman, Hal, and Mike Davis. The Grit Beneath the Glitter: Tales from the Real Las Vegas. U of California P, 2002. eBook Collection (Ebscohost),


LePatner, Barry B., et al. Broken Buildings, Busted Budgets: How to Fix America's Trillion-Dollar Construction Industry. U of Chicago P, 2007. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost),


Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes. Systems Analysis and Systems Engineering in Environmental Remediation Programs at the Department of Energy Hanford Site. National Academies Press, 1998. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost),


Stepping Stones to Recovery from Cocaine/Crack Addiction. Hazelden, 1995. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost),

To emphasize the book:

Navarro, Julia.  Shoot Me, I'm Already Dead. Translated by James Womack, Plaza Janés, 2014. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost),


To emphasize the translator:

Womack, James, translator. Shoot Me, I'm Already Dead. By Julia Navarro, Plaza Janés, 2014. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost),

Sato, Haruo, et al. Seismic Wave Propagation and Scattering in the Heterogeneous Earth. 2nd ed., Springer, 2012. SpringerLink,


Rossiter, Darien. "Where Has the Effort Gone? The Quest to Sustain Momentum." Flexible Pedagogy, Flexible Practice: Notes from the Trenches of Distance Education, edited by Elizabeth Burge, et al., Athabasca UP, 2014, pp. 161-73. ProQuest Ebook Central,

“Reality Television.” Dictionary of Media and Communication, edited by Daniel Chandler and Rod Munday, 2nd ed., Oxford UP, 2016. Oxford Reference,



Emmrich, Stuart. “Project Runway Makes It Real.” The New York Times, 15 Sept. 2011, p. E10. LexisNexis Academic,


Considine, Austin. “Celebrities Leave a Void in Twitter.” New York Times, 18 July 2012,


Schilling, Mary Kaye. "Dust to Dust." Newsweek Global, 24 Aug. 2018, pp. 30-37. MasterFILE Premier,


Kreimer, Susan. “Project Runway: Hospital Gowns Get Some Fashion Sense.” H&HN, Apr. 2011, p. 16. Academic Search Premier,


Steingarten, Jeffrey. “Will Scientists Determine the Future of Food?” Vogue, 28 Dec. 2015,

A DOI is a Digital Object Identifier. It is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document. NOT ALL ARTICLES HAVE DOIs.

If an article has a DOI, it will be printed on the article (usually in the header or footer) or on the database page that linked you to the article.

Example with URL:

Hyman, Gwen. “The Taste of Fame: Chefs, Diners, Celebrity, Class.” Gastronomica, vol.  8, no. 3, 2008, pp. 43-52. JSTOR,

Same article using its DOI:

Hyman, Gwen. “The Taste of Fame: Chefs, Diners, Celebrity, Class.” Gastronomica, vol.  8, no. 3, 2008, pp. 43-52. JSTOR,

The DOI is usually located on the front page of the article, the download page, or the database record.

Jung, Joo-Young.  “Connectedness and Disconnectedness to New and Old Media within Different Age Groups.” First Monday, vol. 21, no. 8, Aug. 2016,

Bergholtz, Benjamin. "'Certainty in Its Purest Form': Globalization, Fundamentalism, and Narrative in Zadie Smith's White Teeth." Review of White Teeth, by Zadie Smith. Contemporary Literature, vol. 57, no. 4, 2016, pp. 541-68. Book Review Digest Plus,


Milton, John. Paradise Lost: A Poem. Project Gutenberg,

Ginsberg, Allen. “Howl.” Poetry Foundation, 1955-1956,

Other Online Sources

"What's Causing My Knee Pain?" WebMD,


*The sponsor 's name is the same as the website's, so it's not needed. There is no date on the website, so it was left off.


Thompson, Dennis. "A Surgery-Free Fix for Bad Knees?" WebMD, 20 Mar. 2018,


Shelby Humane Society. 2016,


Eaves, Morris, et al. The William Blake Archive. 1996-2016,

Social Media

Kedra, Joanna. E-mail to the author. 10 Aug. 2018.


If the email was to someone else, add that person's name



Kedra, Joanna. E-Mail to Delores Carlito. 10 Aug. 2018.


@BronxZoosCobra. "@SamuelLJackson is on a plane." Twitter, 31 Jul, 2018, 2:35 p.m.,

If the posting has a title:

Tokarczuk, Olga. "All Saints' Mountain." Hazlitt, Penguin Random House,  23 Jan. 2019,


If the posting does not have a title:

Smith, John. Blog post. Fake Blog, Blogger, 16 Jan. 2019,


"How to Distract an Egyptian God." BestLife, Meredith Health Group, 7 Jun. 2018,

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